"Stock Enhancement and Sea Ranching: Developments, Pitfalls and Opportunities"2nd Edition, ISBN: 978-1-4051-1119-5, August 2004
Eds: K.M. Leber (USA), S. Kitada (Japan), H. L. Blankenship (USA) & T. Svåsand (Norway)
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell. Internet: Available here


About the Symposium

The Second International Symposium on Stock Enhancement and Sea Ranching was held from January 28 to February 1, 2002, at the Kobe Portopia Hotel in Chuo Ward in Kobe City, Japan, under the auspices of the Japan Fisheries Agency and the Japan Sea-Farming Association. The symposium was designed to exchange technological information necessary for the effective promotion of stock enhancement and sea ranching. It was also aimed at providing a forum for the discussion of problems necessary to resolve in developing fisheries stock enhancement and to suggest measures to solve the problems.

Ichiro Nomura, assistant director-general of the Fisheries Department of the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), was scheduled to deliver a special lecture at the symposium. The meeting started with a plenary session of specialists from Japan, Norway, the U. S., Canada and FAO. Delegates from participating nations gave oral reports on examples of their research, including seed quality and effective stocking, health management of hatchery stocks, methods for evaluating stocking effectiveness, Population management in stock enhancement and sea ranching, Management of stocked populations, Ecological interactions with wild stocks, Genetic management of hatchery and wild stocks, Socio-economics of stock enhancement and case studies.

The symposium addressed the following themes:



A stock enhancement project for living marine resources started in Japan in the 1960's. The objective of the project was to increase or stabilize living marine resources by releasing artificially raised juveniles for recruitment to natural stocks. Ever since, juvenile production and sea ranching techniques have advanced significantly. Moreover, some species have been produced in large quantities successfully and the effectiveness of the projects has been demonstrated.

In recent years, countries such as Norway, S.S.A., Australia, and China have also launched stock enhancement projects. In view of the worldwide expansion of stock enhancement efforts, the First International Symposium on Stock Enhancement and Sea Ranching was held in Norway in September, 1997. A total of 180 participants from 28 countries joined the 4-day symposium to discuss a variety of topics related to the current status of stock nhancement and sea ranching as well as future challenges.

Meanwhile, the International Conference on the Sustainable Contribution of Fisheries to Food Securities was held in Kyoto in 1995. It adopted the Kyoto Declaration and the International Plan of Action, which referred to stock enhancement as one of the specific measures to "promote the use of sustainable and environmentally sound fisheries in coastal regions."

While interest in stock enhancement and sea ranching has risen internationally, some point out the need for watching with caution the impact of releasing artificially reared juveniles to the ecosystem. They call for "responsible stock enhancement and sea ranching," that takes into consideration such principles as sustaining the ecosystem, conservation of biodiversity, and assessment of environmental impact.

Considering this background, Japan recognized the need for addressing the world-wide interest on this topic, made clear by those who gathered at the First International Symposium, and decided to host the Second INternational Symposium on Stock Enhancement and Sea Ranching. The Symposium will be convened in Kobe City, Japan, on January 28, 2002. It will offer the opportunity for information exchange among scientists, researchers, engineers and administrators on stock enhancement and sea ranching projects implemented throughout the world. The goals are to enhance our understanding of the current situation and to identify problems that need to be overcome and research topics for further development of stock enhancement and sea ranching.

The second International Symposium will focus on topics such as techniques for releasing juveniles and evaluating stocking effectiveness; conservation of natural stocks; utilization of enhanced stocks; and specific sea ranching projects. Various target species such as marine fish (including salmonids), crustaceans, cephalopods, and other shellfish will be considered.

 The scientific committee has assigned the following various topics for presentation:

Organising Comittee


Koji Imamura (Japan)

International Scientific Committee:

Chairman: K. M. Leber (USA)

H. Lee Blankenship (USA)
R. Hilborn (USA)
W. Smoker (USA)
J. M. Miller (USA)
P. C. Rothlisberg (Australia)
T. Svåsand (Norway)
E. Moksness (Norway)
D. M. Bartley (FAO)
J. Bell (Solomon Islands)
M. Kaeriyama (Japan)
S. Kitada (Japan)
M. Tanaka (Japan)
N. Taniguchi (Japan)
K. Fukusho (Japan)
Y. Yamashita (Japan)
M. Musiake (Japan)
N. Shimamoto (Japan)
A. Nihira (Japan)

Steering Committee:

Chairman : K. Tsukamoto (Japan)  Vice-Chairman: S. Kitada (Japan)

T. Furusawa (Japan)
K. Hirose (Japan)
H. Inuki (Japan)
K. Inoue (Japan)
M. Kaeriyama (Japan)
Y. Yamashita (Japan)


A. Matsumoto (Japan)
S. Sekine (Japan)
R. Masuda (Japan)
Y. Sakakura (Japan)


Contents of Proceedings


Section One: Present Situation of Stock Enhancement

Chapter 1 Stock Enhancement and Sea Ranching as an integrated part of Coastal Zone Management in Norway - Erlend Moksness

Chapter 2 Marine Stock Enhancement in the USA: Status, Trends and Needs - Kenneth M Leber.

Chapter 3 Global Warming, aquaculture, and commercial fisheries - Richard J Beamish and Donald J Noakes.

Chapter 4 Stock Enhancement and Sea Ranching in Developing Countries - Devin M Bartley, Abraham Born and Anton Immink.

Section Two: Seed Quality and Techniques for Effective Stocking

Chapter 5 Why Juvenile Quality and Release Strategies are Important Factors for Success in Stock Enhancement and Sea Ranching - Terje Svåsand.

Chapter 6 Feats and Defeats in Flatfish Stocking: Determinants for Effective Stocking - Josianne G Støttrup.

Chapter 7 Behavioural Approaches to Fish Stock Enhancement: A practical Review - Reiji Masuda.

Chapter 8 Lessons in Marine Fish Enhancement: Experiences with Pacific Salmon - C V W Mahnken, W T Farigrieve, F W Waknitz, D J Maynard, and H L Blankenship.

Chapter 9 Releasing Technique in Stipped Jack Marine Ranching: Pre-release Acclimation and Presence of Decoys to Improve Recapture Rates - Hiroshi Kuwada, Reihi Masuda, Takashi Kobayashi, Takayuki Kogane, Taeko Miyazaki, Keinosuke Imaizumi and Katsumi Tsukamoto.

Section Three: Health Management of Hatchery Stocks

Chapter 10 Fish Health Management in Seed Production - Keiichi Mushiake and Kiyokuni Muroga.

Section Four: Methods for Evaluating Stocking Effectiveness

Chapter 11 An Independent Scientific Evaluation of Washington State Salmonid Hatcheries - H Lee Blankenship and Michael A Kern.

Chapter 12 Experimental Ecological Tests with Stocked Marine Fish - John M Miller and Carl J Walters.

Chapter 13 Examining Genetic Effect Hypothoses of Hatchery Fish on Wild Populations - Shuichi Kitada and Hirohisa Kishino.

Chapter 14 Behaviour of Ongrown Juvenile Spiny Lobsters, Jasus edwardsii After Reseeding to a Coastal Reef in Tasmania, Australia - David J Mills, Caleb Gardner and Sam Ibbott.

Chapter 15 Juvenile Release and Market Size Recapture of the Swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus (Miers) Marked with Coded Wire Tags - Kazutoshi Okamoto.

Chapter 16 Evaluation of Stock Enhancement Programs for Masu Salmon in Hokkaido, Northern Japan, by Two-stage Sampling Surveys of Commercial Landings - Yasuyuki Miyakoshi, Mitsuhiro Nagata, Kei-ichi Sugiwaka and Shuichi Kitada.

Section Five: Population Management in Stock Enhancement and Sea Ranching

Chapter 17 Population Management in Stock Enhancement and Sea Ranching -Ray Hilborn.

Section Six: Management of Stocked Populations

Chapter 18 Management of Restocking and Stock Enhancement Programs: The Need for Different Approaches - Johann Bell.

Chapter 19 Regional Non-Profit Corporations – An Institutional Model for Stock Enhancement - William W Smoker.

Chapter 20 Management Options for Restocked Trochus Fisheries - Steven W Purcell.

Section Seven: Ecological Interactions with Wild Stocks

Chapter 21 Evaluation of the Biological Interaction between Wild and Hatchery Population for Sustainable Fisheries Management of Pacific Salmon - Masahide Kaeriyama and Rizalita R Edpalina.

Chapter 22 Risk/Benefit Considerations for Marine Stock Enhancement: A Pacific Salmon Perspective - Robin S Waples and Jonathan Drake .

Chapter 23 Effects of Hatchery Releases and Environmental Variation on Wild-stock Productivity: Consequences for Sea Ranching of Pink Salmon in Prince William Sound, Alaska - Alex C Wertheimer, William R Heard and William W Smoker.

Section Eight: Genetic Management of Hatchery and Wild Stocks

Chapter 24 Broodstock Management for Stock Enhancement Programs of Marine Fish with Assistance of DNA Marker (a Review) - Nobuhiko Taniguchi.

Chapter 25 Genetic Studies in Marine Stock Enhancement in Norway - Knut E Jørstad.

Chapter 26 Stock Structure and Effective Size of Red Drum (Sciaenops Ocellatus) in the Northern Gulf of Mexico and Implications Relative to Stock Enhancement and Recruitment - John R Gold.

Chapter 27 Natural Selection After Release from a Hatchery Leads to Domestication in Steelhead, Oncorhynchus mykiss - Reg Reisenbichler, Steve Rubin, Lisa Wetzel and Steve Phelps.

Section Nine: Socio-economics of Stock Enhancement

Chapter 28 Averting Food Crisis in the 21st Century: The Role of Stock Enhancement and Sea Ranching - I Chiu Liao .

Chapter 29 The Role of Stock Enhancement in the Management Framework for New Zealand’s Southern Scallop Fishery - Kim Drummond.

Section Ten: Case Studies

Chapter 30 Enhancing the European Lobster (Homarus gammarus) Stock at Kvitsøy Islands: Perspectives of Rebuilding Norwegian Stocks - A L Agnalt, K E Jørstad, T Kristiansen, E Nøstvold, E Farestveit, H Næss, O I Paulsen and T Svåsand.

Chapter 31 The Decline of Global Abalone (Geneus Haliotis) Production in the Late Twentieth Century: Is There a Future? - Jeremy D Prince.

Chapter 32 An Approach to Evaluating the Potential for Stock Enhancement of Brown Tiger Prawns (Penaeus Esculentus Haswell) in Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia - Neil R Loneeragan, Peter J Crocos, Roger Barnard, Richard Mcculloch, James W Penn, Robert D Ward and Peter C Rothlisberg.

Chapter 33 Stock Enhancement of the Short-spined Sea Urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius in Hokkaido, Japan - Yuichi Sakai, Ken-Ichiro Tajima and Yukio Agatsuma.

Chapter 34 Enhancement of Pacific Threadfin (Polydactylus Sexfilis) in Hawaii: Interactions between Aquaculture and Fisheries - David A Ziemann.

Chapter 35 Stock Enhancement of Barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch) in a Coastal River System in Northern Australia: Stocking Strategies, Survival and Cost-benefits - D J Russell, M A Rimmer, A J McDougall, S E Kistle and W L Johnston.

Chapter 36 Stocking Effectiveness of Black Rockfish Sebastes schlegeli Released in Yamada Bay Evaluated by a Fish Market Census - Masahiro Nakagawa, Hiroyuki Okouchi and Junichi Adachi .

Section Eleven: Posters

Chapter 37 A Behavioural Character During the Metamorphosing Stage Can Predict the Growth Performance of Juvenile Stage in Japanese Flounder - Yoshitaka Sakakura, Katsumi Tsukamoto and Atsushi Hagiwara.

Chapter 38 Recapture Rates of Released Hatchlings of Giant Cuttlefish Sepia Latimantus Quoy and Gaimard - Masakazu Oka, Takashi Yamashita, Shin-Ichi Osumi and Katsuyuki Hamasaki.

Chapter 39 Development of a Nursery Reef for Released Juvenile Redspotted Grouper, Epinephelus akaara - Shigenobu Okumura, Seiichi Tsumura and Keigo Maruyama.

Chapter 40 Release Strategies in Scallop (Pecten maximus) Sea Ranching Vulnerable to Crab Predation - O Strand, E S Grefsrud, G A Haugum, G Bakke, E Helland, T Helland